The plantar fascia (a connective tissue structure) stretches from the toes and ball of the foot, through the arch, and connects to the heel bone in three places: outside, center and inside. Normally
it helps the foot spring as it rolls forward. It also provides support for the arch of the foot. The plantar fascia helps keep the foot on track, cutting down on oscillation. When the foot
over-pronates (rolls to the inside) the plantar fascia tries to stabilize it and prevent excessive roll. In time, the inside and sometimes center connections are overstressed and pull away from their
attachments. The first sign is usually heel pain as you rise in the morning. When you walk around, the pain may subside, only to return the next morning. Inflammation and increased soreness are the
results of long-term neglect and continued abuse. A heel bone spur may develop after a long period of injury when there is no support for the heel. The plantar fascia attaches to the heel bone with
small fibers. When these become irritated they become inflamed with blood containing white blood cells. Within the white blood cells are osteoblasts which calcify to form bone spurs and calcium
deposits. The body is trying to reduce stress on that area by building a bone in the direction of stress. Unfortunately, these foreign substances cause pain and further irritation in the surrounding
Inappropriate footwear is the No. 1 cause of plantar fasciosis. Footwear that possesses toe spring and a tapered toe box holds your big toe in an adducted and extended position. In this position,
your abductor hallucis muscle-the muscle responsible for moving your big toe away from your footâs midline-pulls on a foot structure called the flexor retinaculum and may restrict blood flow
through your posterior tibial artery, the vessel that carries blood to the bottom of your foot. Tissues in the sole of your feet begin to degenerate as blood supply to this area is decreased. Other
recognized causes of or contributors to this health problem include the following, calf muscle shortening, plantar fascia contracture, Obesity, rheumatoid arthritis, reactive arthritis, Psoriatic
arthritis, Corticosteroid injections.
Among the symptoms for Plantar Fasciitis is pain usually felt on the underside of the heel, often most intense with the first steps after getting out of bed in the morning. It is commonly associated
with long periods of weight bearing or sudden changes in weight bearing or activity. Plantar Fasciitis also called âpolicemanâs heelâ is presented by a sharp stabbing pain at the bottom or
front of the heel bone. In most cases, heel pain is more severe following periods of inactivity when getting up and then subsides, turning into a dull ache.
X-rays are a commonly used diagnostic imaging technique to rule out the possibility of a bone spur as a cause of your heel pain. A bone spur, if it is present in this location, is probably not the
cause of your pain, but it is evidence that your plantar fascia has been exerting excessive force on your heel bone. X-ray images can also help determine if you have arthritis or whether other, more
rare problems, stress fractures, bone tumors-are contributing to your heel pain.
Non Surgical Treatment
In the early stages of plantar fasciitis resting the foot may ease the pain. Medication to reduce inflammation should help but should only be used short term. Strapping may temporarily reduce the
pain. All of the above therapies are only temporary measures and the pain is likely to reoccur if the cause of the abnormal pressure which has triggered the plantar fasciitis has not been identified.
In order to establish the cause of the plantar fasciitis a biomechanical assessment may be required.
Surgery is not a common treatment for this condition. Approximately 5% of people with plantar fasciitis require surgery if non-surgical methods do not help to relieve pain within a year. The surgical
procedure involves making an incision in the plantar fascia in order to decrease the tension of the ligament. Potential risks of this surgical procedure include irritation of the nerves around the
heel, continued plantar fasciitis, heel or foot pain, infection, flattening of the arch, problems relating to the anesthetic.
Do your best to maintain healthy weight. Plantar fasciitis is caused by wear and tear on your feet. Being overweight drastically increases the pounding your feet take every day. Even losing a few
pounds can help reduce heel pain. Avoid jobs that require walking or standing for long periods of time. Having your body weight on your feet all day puts a lot of pressure on your plantar fascia
tissue. Replace your shoes on a regular basis. Buy new shoes when the old ones are worn-out. Make sure your shoes will fit your foot size comfortably at the end of the day. Pay attention to the width
as well as the length. Use good supportive shoes that will help you with your original problem like arch support, motion control, stability, cushioning etc. Stretch regularly as part of your daily
routine. There are a few special stretching techniques for the prevention. Choose soft surfaces for your exercise routine to walk, jog or run on. Rest and elevate your feet every chance you have.
Strengthen your foot muscles as part of your exercise routine. Strong foot muscles provide a good support to the plantar fascia. Change your shoes during the work week. Don't wear the same pair of
shoes every day. Perform Warm up exercises such as a short period of walking, a light jog or other easy movement and then stretch before starting the main exercise. Try to avoid dramatic changes in
your exercise routine. Increase your exercise level gradually. Donât run long distance if you are used to walk. Make the change slowly and gradually. Pay attention to your foot pain, do not ignore
it. Visit your doctor if the pain continues. Avoid the activities that cause you pain. Use over-the-counter Orthotics or inserts that your doctor may prescribe. Off-the-shelf or custom-fitted arch
supports (orthotics) will help distribute pressure to your feet more evenly. Try to avoid barefoot walking, since it may add stress on the plantar fascia ligament.